Evolutionary psychologists who study mating behavior often begin with a hypothesis about how modern humans mate: say, that men think about sex more than women do. Then they gather evidence — from studies, statistics and surveys — to support that assumption. Lately, however, a new cohort of scientists have been challenging the very existence of the gender differences in sexual behavior that Darwinians have spent the past 40 years trying to explain and justify on evolutionary grounds. Of course, no fossilized record can really tell us how people behaved or thought back then, much less why they behaved or thought as they did. Nonetheless, something funny happens when social scientists claim that a behavior is rooted in our evolutionary past. Assumptions about that behavior take on the immutability of a physical trait — they come to seem as biologically rooted as opposable thumbs or ejaculation. Using evolutionary psychology to back up these assumptions about men and women is nothing new. They were the way things had always been. In , Robert L.
Conspiracy theories have been cooked up throughout history, but they are increasingly visible lately, likely due in part to the president of the United States routinely embracing or creating them. Given that any particular conspiracy theory is unlikely to be the subject of mainstream consensus, what draws people to them? New research by Josh Hart, associate professor of psychology, suggests that people with certain personality traits and cognitive styles are more likely to believe in conspiracy theories.
The research was recently published in the Journal of Individual Differences. People who are reluctant to believe in conspiracy theories tend to have the opposite qualities.
The theory of attachment was originally developed by John Bowlby ( – ), a desirable level of physical or psychological proximity to the attachment figure, as most “attractive” in potential dating partners (Zeifman & Hazan, ).
W hat do humans really want in a long-term partner? If people were given a limited menu of characteristics from which to choose, what would be the non-negotiables? And how much of what we value in a partner is influenced by culture and how much is innate? In a nifty new report out of the University of Swansea in the U. The study , which was published in the Journal of Personality on Sept.
At first they spent big on everything, but as their budget grew smaller in each round of the study, they had to really figure out what they wanted. After kindness, men almost universally favored physical attractiveness and women chose good financial prospects. We asked the researcher Andrew G. Thomas, a senior lecturer in Psychology at Swansea, to explain his research.
This page has been archived and is no longer updated. Published online 2 June Nature doi Matt Kaplan.
The Journal of Genetic Psychology CrossRef citations to date. 0 are discussed within the context of J. B. Rotter’s (, , ) social learning theory.
Research on adult attachment is guided by the assumption that the same motivational system that gives rise to the close emotional bond between parents and their children is responsible for the bond that develops between adults in emotionally intimate relationships. The objective of this essay is to provide a brief overview of the history of adult attachment research, the key theoretical ideas, and a sampling of some of the research findings. This essay has been written for people who are interested in learning more about research on adult attachment.
The theory of attachment was originally developed by John Bowlby – , a British psychoanalyst who was attempting to understand the intense distress experienced by infants who had been separated from their parents. Bowlby observed that separated infants would go to extraordinary lengths e. At the time of Bowlby’s initial writings, psychoanalytic writers held that these expressions were manifestations of immature defense mechanisms that were operating to repress emotional pain, but Bowlby noted that such expressions are common to a wide variety of mammalian species, and speculated that these behaviors may serve an evolutionary function.
Drawing on ethological theory, Bowlby postulated that these attachment behaviors , such as crying and searching, were adaptive responses to separation from a primary attachment figure –someone who provides support, protection, and care. Because human infants, like other mammalian infants, cannot feed or protect themselves, they are dependent upon the care and protection of “older and wiser” adults.
Bowlby argued that, over the course of evolutionary history, infants who were able to maintain proximity to an attachment figure via attachment behaviors would be more likely to survive to a reproductive age. According to Bowlby, a motivational system, what he called the attachment behavioral system , was gradually “designed” by natural selection to regulate proximity to an attachment figure.
The attachment behavior system is an important concept in attachment theory because it provides the conceptual linkage between ethological models of human development and modern theories on emotion regulation and personality. According to Bowlby, the attachment system essentially “asks” the following fundamental question: Is the attachment figure nearby, accessible, and attentive?
European Medical Alliance. Get Instant Access. Theories of interpersonal attraction attempt to specify the conditions that lead people to like, and in some cases love, each other. Attraction is a two-way process, involving not only the person who is attracted but also the attractor. Relationships are central to human social existence.
Two main theories have guided scientific thinking on the subject. First is evolutionary theory, which claims that behavioral tendencies, physical.
What do you think is the single most influential factor in determining with whom you become friends and whom you form romantic relationships? You might be surprised to learn that the answer is simple: the people with whom you have the most contact. This most important factor is proximity. You are more likely to be friends with people you have regular contact with. It is simply easier to form relationships with people you see often because you have the opportunity to get to know them. One of the reasons why proximity matters to attraction is that it breeds familiarity ; people are more attracted to that which is familiar.
Just being around someone or being repeatedly exposed to them increases the likelihood that we will be attracted to them. We also tend to feel safe with familiar people, as it is likely we know what to expect from them. Robert Zajonc labeled this phenomenon the mere-exposure effect. More specifically, he argued that the more often we are exposed to a stimulus e.
Moreland and Beach demonstrated this by exposing a college class to four women similar in appearance and age who attended different numbers of classes, revealing that the more classes a woman attended, the more familiar, similar, and attractive she was considered by the other students.
Viren Swami does not work for, consult, own shares in or receive funding from any company or organisation that would benefit from this article, and has disclosed no relevant affiliations beyond their academic appointment. Some time ago, I found myself single again shock, horror! But too often those opinions were based on anecdotes, assumptions about human behaviour I knew to be wrong, or — worse — pure misogyny.
The Dating Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Emerging Science of Darwinian theory with the declaration, “Nature will unapologetically weed your genes.
He was the student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle , and he wrote in the middle of the fourth century B. Nonetheless, his earliest works are generally regarded as the most reliable of the ancient sources on Socrates, and the character Socrates that we know through these writings is considered to be one of the greatest of the ancient philosophers. These works blend ethics , political philosophy , moral psychology, epistemology , and metaphysics into an interconnected and systematic philosophy.
It is most of all from Plato that we get the theory of Forms, according to which the world we know through the senses is only an imitation of the pure, eternal, and unchanging world of the Forms. Because they tended to distract us into accepting less than our highest potentials, however, Plato mistrusted and generally advised against physical expressions of love. It is widely accepted that Plato, the Athenian philosopher, was born in B.
E and died at the age of eighty or eighty-one at B.
Jade Wu is a clinical psychologist who specializes in health psychology. In the clinic, she uses evidence-based treatments to help patients improve their health and cope with illness. In the lab, she conducts research on the role of sleep in chronic health conditions. In the wider world, she helps to spread the good word about psychological aspects of health by publishing scientific articles, presenting at local and international conferences, and teaching students.
Psychologists have worked out that they can get swarms of student participants in mate-choice studies by offering speed-dating opportunities.
When choosing a partner, people start by looking at the options that are available. Kerckhoff and Davis studied student couples mainly in short-term relationships of fewer than 18 months and discovered several important criteria people use to choose a partner. According to this theory, there are several levels of filters that people apply. The first level is that of sociodemographic characteristics , such as physical proximity, level of education, social class, religion and other important factors people are likely to pay attention to when we are meeting a person for the first time.
These factors are important, because people are more likely to build relationships with people who are geographically close, and whom they are meeting frequently, as this gives them a greater chance to find out more about one another. People also find similarities in education, social class and religious beliefs attractive, as this gives them assurance that relationships are more likely to move forward.
This then leads to the second level of filters that relates to similarity of attitudes. People tend to view others as more attractive if they share the same core beliefs and values, such as views on career and importance of family. Byrne noted that similarity of attitudes is especially important in earlier stages of relationships, for couples who have been together fewer than 18 months.
Presence or absence of similarities is discovered through self-disclosure, which leads to greater feelings of intimacy in a couple. If partners have very little in common, however, relationships rarely develop beyond the first few dates. If similarities are crucial at the early stages of relationships, it seems that for long-term couples the third filter, complementarity, plays a much more important role.
Complementarity refers to each of the partners having some traits that the other partner lacks, and helping each other to fulfil their needs.